Prepared by Public Affairs 312-751-4777
Persons claiming retirement, disability, survivor, unemployment or sickness
benefits from the Railroad Retirement Board (RRB) have the right to appeal
unfavorable determinations on their claims. The following questions and answers
describe the appeals process for persons whose claims under the Railroad
Retirement Act or Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act are denied, or who are
dissatisfied with decisions on their claims.
1. How does a person initiate a review of an unfavorable decision on a
claim and what are the time limits?
For all claims under the Railroad Retirement and Railroad Unemployment Insurance
Acts there is a three-stage review and appeals process within the RRB.
An individual dissatisfied with the initial decision on his or her claim may
first request reconsideration from the RRB unit which issued that decision. An
individual has 60 days from the date on which notice of the initial decision is
mailed to the claimant to file a written request for reconsideration. This step
is mandatory before an appeal may be filed with the RRB's Bureau of Hearings and
In cases involving overpayments, an individual has the right to request waiver
of recovery and also a personal conference. In order for recovery of the
overpayment to be deferred while a waiver request is pending, the waiver request
must be in writing and filed within 60 days from the date on which notice of the
overpayment was mailed to the beneficiary. A request for waiver received after
60 days will be considered but will not defer collection of the overpayment, and
any amount of the overpayment recovered prior to the date on which the waiver
request is filed will not be subject to waiver.
2. What are the second and third stages of the appeals process and their
If dissatisfied with the reconsideration or waiver decision on a retirement,
disability, survivor, unemployment or sickness claim, a person may appeal to the
RRB's Bureau of Hearings and Appeals, which is independent of those units
responsible for initial and reconsideration decisions. An appellant has 60 days
from the date on which notice of the reconsideration or waiver decision notice
is mailed to the claimant to file this appeal. This appeal must be filed using
RRB Form HA-1, which may be obtained from the RRB's field offices or the
agency's website, www.rrb.gov. The Bureau of Hearings and Appeals may, if
necessary, further investigate the case and obtain reports through the RRB's
field representatives, designated medical examiners, and others who may be in a
position to furnish information pertinent to the appellant's claim. If the
appeal involves questions of fact, the appellant has the right to an oral
hearing before a hearings officer. In cases where an in-person hearing is held,
it may be conducted in the RRB office closest to the appellant's home. In some
cases, video conferencing or phone hearings are held.
If not satisfied with the Bureau of Hearings and Appeals' decision, an appellant
may further appeal to the three-member Board, which heads the agency, within 60
days from the date on which notice of the Bureau of Hearings and Appeals'
decision is mailed to the appellant. The three-member Board ordinarily will not
accept additional evidence or conduct a hearing.
3. What are the criteria applied to requests for waivers of retirement,
disability, or survivor benefit overpayments, and unemployment or sickness
A person's obligation to repay any erroneous benefit payments may be waived only
if the following conditions are met:
(1) The person was not at fault in causing the overpayment; and (2) recovery of
the overpayment would cause financial hardship to the extent that he or she
would not be able to meet ordinary and necessary living expenses, or recovery
would be against equity or good conscience. "Against equity or good conscience"
is defined in the regulations of the RRB as meaning that the claimant has, by
reliance on the payments made to him or her, or on notice that payment would be
made, relinquished a significant and valuable right or changed his or her
position to his or her substantial detriment.
In cases involving unemployment or sickness benefits, there is an additional
requirement that the overpayment must be more than 10 times the current maximum
daily benefit rate.
Persons requesting waiver may be asked to complete a financial statement on a
form provided by the RRB.
4. What happens if a person's appeal is not filed within the prescribed
Failure to request reconsideration or to file an appeal within the allocated
time period will result in forfeiture of further appeal rights, unless there is
good cause for the delay. Some examples of good cause include: serious illness;
a death or serious illness in the appellant's immediate family; destruction of
important or relevant records; failure to be notified of a decision; an unusual
or unavoidable circumstance which demonstrated that the appellant could not have
known of the need for timely filing or which prevented the appellant from filing
in a timely manner; or the claimant thought that his or her representative had
requested reconsideration or appeal. If good cause is not established, further
appeal is forfeited, except that the appellant may contest the determination
that the request for reconsideration or appeal was not filed timely.
5. Are there avenues of appeal beyond the RRB?
Appellants dissatisfied with the three-member Board's final decision may then
file a petition with the appropriate U.S. Court of Appeals to review the Board's
decision. In cases involving retirement, disability or survivor claims, the
petition for review must be filed within one year after notice of the
three-member Board's decision has been mailed to the appellant. In cases
involving claims for unemployment or sickness benefits, the petition for review
must be filed within 90 days of the Board's decision notice.
6. Can employers contest the claims of their employees for unemployment
and sickness benefits?
When an employer is a party to the claim for benefits, that employer may protest
the payment of benefits, but such protests do not prevent the timely payment of
benefits. However, an employee may be required to repay benefits if his or her
employer's protest is ultimately successful. The employer also has the right to
appeal an unfavorable decision to the RRB's Bureau of Hearings and Appeals.
7. Where can a person obtain retirement, disability, survivor,
unemployment or sickness benefit appeals forms and assistance in completing the
Requests for reconsideration of an initial decision must be in writing, but do
not have to be on any specific form. The appropriate form for waiver of recovery
of a benefit overpayment is ordinarily enclosed with the overpayment notice. As
stated earlier, RRB Form HA-1, which must be used to appeal to the Bureau of
Hearings and Appeals and the three-member Board, is available from the RRB's
Bureau of Hearings and Appeals, 844 North Rush Street, Chicago, Illinois
60611-2092, or online at www.rrb.gov. This form can also be obtained from any
RRB field office, as can assistance in filing a request for review at each of
the administrative levels.
Persons wishing to contact an RRB field office can call the RRB's toll-free
phone number at 1-877-772-5772. Claimants can also find the address of the RRB
office serving their area by calling this toll-free number. Most RRB offices are
open to the public from 9:00 a.m. to 3:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, except on
Federal holidays. Field office
locations can also be found by visiting www.rrb.gov.